(1 Corinthians 10:9) "Flee from idolatry." Chapter XXIV Nineteenth and Twentieth Years of the War - Revolt of Ionia - Intervention of Persia - The War in Ionia When the news was brought to Athens, for a long while they disbelieved even the most respectable of the soldiers who had themselves escaped from the scene of action and clearly reported the matter, a destruction so complete not being thought credible. The satrap Tissaphernes was executed for his failure to contain Agesilaus, and his replacement, Tithraustes, bribed the Spartans to move north, into the satrapy of Pharnabazus, Hellespontine Phrygia. (1841). These two fleets met off the point of Cnidus in 394 BC. He fled to Tegea before he could be convicted. He was immediately killed at the battle of Haliartus, however, a grave military loss to Sparta. Noticing that the Athenians had relaxed their guard after Chabrias's victory, he launched a raid on Piraeus, seizing numerous merchant ships. The Corinthian War was an ancient Greek conflict lasting from 395 BC until 387 BC, pitting Sparta against a coalition of Thebes, Athens, Corinth and Argos, backed by the Achaemenid Empire. Taking advantage of this fact, Athens launched several naval campaigns in the later years of the war, recapturing a number of islands that had been part of the original Delian League during the 5th century BC. The reassertion of Spartan hegemony over Greece by abandoning the Greeks of Aeolia, Ionia, and Caria has been called the "most disgraceful event in Greek history". The orders were a disappointment to Agesilaus, who had looked forward to further successful campaigning. , After this victory, an Argive army came to Corinth, and, seizing the acropolis, effected the merger of Argos and Corinth. The crisis began on June 28, 1914, when Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb, assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne. In fact, Mausolus, despite a brief and cautious insurrectionary moment in the late 360s when he joined the great Revolt of the Satraps (a movement in which there was also tentative Athenian and Spartan participation), is found actively damaging Athenian interest in the Aegean in the 350s. The war against terrorism is the first war of the 21 st Century -- and it requires a 21 st Century military strategy. Seeing that the rest of their force had been defeated, the Thebans formed up to break back through to their camp. Hellenization was well under way before he came. Below is a list of scripture passages with the many references to war occurring throughout the Bible.  The Corinthian War followed the Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC), in which Sparta had achieved hegemony over Athens and its allies. Corinth and Thebes refused to send troops to assist Sparta in its campaign against Elis. (b) What part would the remnant of spiritual Israel have in this? Despite the collaborative nature of the victory, Sparta alone received the plunder taken from the defeated states and the tribute payments from the former Athenian … To the church of God in Corinth, together with all the saints throughout Achaia: 2 Grace and peace to you from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.. Ancient Greek conflict lasting from 395 BC until 387 BC, Initial fighting: Battle of Haliartus (395 BC), Achaemenid naval campaign and assistance to Athens (393 BC), "Persian coins were stamped with the figure of an archer, and Agesilaus said, as he was breaking camp, that the King was driving him out of Asia with ten thousand "archers"; for so much money had been sent to Athens and Thebes and distributed among the popular leaders there, and as a consequence those people made war upon the Spartans" Plutarch 15-1-6 in. Cyprus was included because Athens had been helping the rebel Cypriot king, Evagoras.)  Abydus and Sestus were the only cities to refuse to expel the Lacedemonians despite threats from Pharnabazus to make war on them. At the least (and Xenophon, a great admirer of the Spartan king, attributes to him some very grand ideas indeed) Agesilaus seems to have wanted to establish a zone of rebel satraps in western Anatolia. The conduct of war. The Corinthian War was succeeded by the Theban–Spartan War of 378–362 BC, in which Sparta would finally lose its hegemony, this time to Thebes. , They then raided the coast of Laconia and seized the island of Cythera, where they left a garrison and an Athenian governor to cripple Sparta's offensive military capabilities.  The Persians, meanwhile, had already assembled a joint Phoenician, Cilician, and Cypriot fleet, under the joint command of Achaemenid satrap Pharnabazus II and the experienced Athenian admiral Conon who was in self-exile and in the service of the Achaemenids after his infamous defeat at the Battle of Aegospotami.  Under threat of Spartan intervention, Thebes disbanded its league, and Argos and Corinth ended their experiment in shared government; Corinth, deprived of its strong ally, was incorporated back into Sparta's Peloponnesian League. Unlike Thebes, Corinth had emerged badly from the Peloponnesian War; its prosperous middle class had been eroded, and that made possible a remarkable turn of events: Corinth and democratic Argos, in a unique if short-lived political experiment, became fully merged at this time. In 386, however, the political dividing line between Greek and Persian interests looked relatively clean, although it was usually with the help of Greek mercenaries that over the next decades Persia made its series of attempts on the recovery of Egypt, the immediate task in the sequel to the King’s Peace. The major Hellenizing force, however, was his son Mausolus (Maussollos on the inscriptions), satrap from 377 to 353, who gave his name to the Mausoleum, the tomb he perhaps commissioned for himself. Once there, he won over several major states to the Athenian side and placed a duty on ships sailing past Byzantium, restoring a source of revenue that the Athenians had relied on in the late Peloponnesian War. , Pharnabazus II, leaving part of his fleet in Cythera, then went to Corinth, where he gave Sparta's rivals funds to further threaten the Lacedaemonians. Campaigning continued in the Peloponnese and the northwest. Charles Anthon, L.L.D. A--Certainly he did. Purpose of Writing: The apostle Paul founded the church in Corinth. A little farther away, Sparta’s former Peloponnesian and extra-Peloponnesian allies were unhappy with what they saw as alarming extensions of Spartan territorial interests, though in fact some of these were very traditional. The freedom of the Ionian Greeks had been a rallying cry since the beginning of the 5th century, but after the Corinthian War, the mainland states made no further attempts to interfere with Persia's control of the region. And a remarkable trilingual inscription in Lycian, Greek, and Aramaic (a Semitic script used for convenience in many parts of the Persian empire), found in 1973, proves the family’s interests to have spread eastward into Lycia; the text illustrates the cultural, social, and religious heterogeneity of southwestern Anatolia in the period before Alexander’s arrival. He, judging that he could accomplish more by campaigning where the Spartan fleet was not than by challenging it directly, sailed to the Hellespont. On land, the Spartans achieved several early successes in major battles, but were unable to capitalize on their advantage, and the fighting soon became stalemated. of city-states. Hellenization at the cultural level and tolerance of the social structures of small local places with no military muscle did not necessarily entail favouring the political interests of the Greek states to the west. Date of Writing: The Book of 1 Corinthians was written in approximately A. D. 55.  The border stones between Argos and Corinth were torn down, and the citizen bodies of the two cities were merged. This defection forced the allies to seek peace.  Cythera in effect became Achaemenid territory. (...) Pharnabazus, upon hearing this, eagerly dispatched him to Athens and gave him additional money for the rebuilding of the walls. The July Crisis, a series of interrelated diplomatic and military escalations among the major powers of Europe in the summer of 1914, led to the outbreak of World War I (1914–1918).  The Thebans, who had previously demonstrated their antipathy towards Sparta, undertook to bring about a war. The Athenians on Aegina, meanwhile, soon found themselves under attack, and withdrew after several months. In 391 BC, Agesilaus campaigned in the area, successfully seizing several fortified points, along with a large number of prisoners and amounts of booty.  The military occupation by these pro-Athenian forces led to several democratic revolutions and new alliances with Athens in the islands. Nor was Athens yet in a mood for peace. Ulysses S. Grant, who graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point in 1843, didn’t go there because he dreamed of being a soldier. These events are best described by Xenophon, at, "IGII2 6217 Epitaph of Dexileos, cavalryman killed in Corinthian war (394 BC)", 2,500 year celebration of the Persian Empire, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Corinthian_War&oldid=998457031, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Perlman, S. "The Causes and the Outbreak of the Corinthian War,", This page was last edited on 5 January 2021, at 13:25. I told him for propaganda against the peoples regime..Q--To-whom else did you talk? In the first of these, in 389 BC, a Spartan expeditionary force crossed the Gulf of Corinth to attack Acarnania, an ally of the anti-Spartan coalition. These possessions had hitherto been anomalous enclaves of Greek control within basically satrapal Asia, but the King’s Peace surely assigned them formally to Persia in general. The Spartans then dispatched their fleet from the Gulf of Corinth, under Teleutias, to assist. The King's Peace, also known as the Peace of Antalcidas, was signed in 387 BC, ending the war. The deeper cause was hostility towards Sparta, provoked by that city's "expansionism in Asia Minor, central and northern Greece and even the west". The activities of those 4th-century satraps (and of dynasts without the satrapal title but recognized by Persia) are of great interest, though documented more by inscriptions and archaeology than by written sources. They wrote a reply to Paul with a number of questions. A Classical Dictionary. In late 395 BC, Corinth and Argos entered the war as co-belligerents with Athens and Thebes. The third and fourth terms of the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt began on January 20, 1941, the date of Roosevelt's third inauguration, and ended with Roosevelt's death on April 12, 1945.Roosevelt won a third term by defeating Republican nominee Wendell Willkie in the 1940 United States presidential election.He remains the only president to serve for more than two terms. The Athenians responded with an ambush of their own; Chabrias, on his way to Cyprus, landed his troops on Aegina and laid an ambush for the Aeginetans and their Spartan allies, killing a number of them including Gorgopas. Xenophon in his Hellenica gives a vivid contemporary account of this endeavour: Conon said that if he (Pharnabazus) would allow him to have the fleet, he would maintain it by contributions from the islands and would meanwhile put in at Athens and aid the Athenians in rebuilding their long walls and the wall around Piraeus, adding that he knew nothing could be a heavier blow to the Lacedaemonians than this. Earning College Credit. Lysander’s support of Cyrus provided grounds for a change of attitude toward Sparta on the part of the new Persian king. The restored Athenian democracy may have been less democratic in certain respects than that of the 5th century, but it was no less suspicious of, and hostile to, Sparta. , Alarmed by these developments, the Spartans prepared to send out an army against this new alliance, and sent a messenger to Agesilaus ordering him to return to Greece. Despite the collaborative nature of the victory, Sparta alone received the plunder taken from the defeated states and the tribute payments from the former Athenian Empire. The most energetic of them was the Hecatomnid dynasty of Caria, which took its name from Hecatomnus, the son of Hyssaldomus. As Hitler’s appetite for power and territory grew, his army began to march across Europe. Unable to defeat Agesilaus' army, Pharnabazus decided to force Agesilaus to withdraw by stirring up trouble on the Greek mainland. , At Corinth, the democratic party continued to hold the city proper, while the exiles and their Spartan supporters held Lechaeum, from where they raided the Corinthian countryside. shall be put to shame and confounded; those who strive against you. Then the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the Lord. He attempted to force these into submission by ravaging the surrounding territory, but this proved fruitless, leading him to leave Conon in charge of winning over the cities in the Hellespont. A -.0.Aftr I reached Martanesh, I did not find any base.  Thibron was later replaced by Diphridas, who raided more successfully, securing a number of small successes and even capturing Struthas's son-in-law, but never achieved any dramatic results. , After a brief engagement between Thebes and Phocis, in which Thebes was victorious, the allies gathered a large army at Corinth. Xenophon claims that, unwilling to challenge Sparta directly, the Thebans instead choose to precipitate a war by encouraging their allies, the Locrians, to collect taxes from territory claimed by both Locris and Phocis. 3 I came to you in weakness and fear, and with much trembling.  Their aim was probably to instigate a revolt of the Messanian helots against Sparta. Those feelings, along with the straightforward hankering at all social levels for the benefits… No single event caused the revolution. , After Iphicrates's victories near Corinth, no more major land campaigns were conducted in that region. In central Greece in the early 390s, the Spartans reinforced their position at Heraclea in Trachis and had a garrison at Thessalian Pharsalus.  Eventually they left due to scarce resources and few harbors for the Achaemenid fleet in the area, as well as the looming possibility of Lacedaemonian relief forces being dispatched. The democrats, supported by the Argives, launched an attack on their opponents, and the oligarchs were driven from the city. Initially, Lysander seems to have been at the back of this northward encroachment (good evidence connects him with Thrace and the Chalcidice). For a time, he enjoyed a number of successes against Pharnabazus, and seized a number of Athenian merchant ships. shall be as nothing and shall perish. , As a reward for his success, Pharnabazus was allowed to marry the king's daughter. There, he was put on trial for his life for failing to arrive and support Lysander at the designated time.  Timocrates visited Athens, Thebes, Corinth, and Argos, and succeeded in persuading powerful factions in each of those states to pursue an anti-Spartan policy. For instance, the Athenian navy was perhaps ordered to be broken up and the gates on the Piraeus removed, but these may have been consequences, not clauses, of the peace. , In 388 BC, Agesipolis led a Spartan army against Argos. From the point of view of Thebes and Corinth, there was a risk of encirclement by Sparta. Agesilaus returned from Asia and fought two large-scale hoplite battles but could not force the Athenian general Iphicrates out of Corinth, where for several years he established himself with mercenaries and light-armed troops. Those feelings, along with the straightforward hankering at all social levels for the benefits of empire (a strong and well-attested motive that should be emphasized), were to be exploited by Thebans at Athens in 395 in their appeal to Athens to join in war against Sparta. Q--Did he ask you why you were armed? The battle, though a short-term failure, had long-term propaganda importance because it fixed in Greek minds the possibility of a better-organized “march upcountry,” a project that was to be preached by the Athenian orator Isocrates, planned by Philip of Macedon and realized by Alexander the Great. This war, called the Corinthian War (395–386) because much of it took place on Corinthian territory, was fought against Sparta by a coalition of Athens (with help from Persia), Boeotia, Corinth, and Argos. More than any of his other letters, 2 Corinthians shows us the heart of Paul as a pastor.  The next year, the Acarnanians made peace with the Spartans to avoid further invasions. D. Conquest of the South completed. He ruled his pocket principality under light Persian authority until 377 and made dedications in Greek script at a number of local sites and sanctuaries. In fact, Sparta was not even secure in its local dominance in Laconia and Messenia: the old helot problem recurred in 399 with the attempted revolt of Cinadon, already noted in its helot aspect. According to the terms of this peace treaty: In a general peace conference at Sparta, the Spartans, with their authority enhanced by the threat of Persian intervention, secured the acquiescence of all the major states of Greece to these terms. It may have been a further irritant that Sparta was helping another anti-Persian rebel in Egypt; the fact that Egypt maintained its independence of Persia until the 340s was a serious economic loss to the Persian landowners who had been exploiting it at a distance. Another lay in the depredations that the Thebans had been able to carry out in Attica as a result of the occupation of Decelea. It was this as much as anything that made Sparta offer peace terms in 392, which would have meant the final abandoning of its claims to Asia. He utterly destroyed them; … 42 The strengthening exhortation from Isaiah’s prophecy carried with it the assurance: “Look! Unsuccessful there, Persia had better fortune in Cyprus. In a night attack, the Spartans and exiles succeeded in seizing Lechaeum, Corinth's port on the Gulf of Corinth, and defeated the army that came out to challenge them the next day. But whichever of the two parties does not accept this peace, upon them I will make war, in company with those who desire this arrangement, both by land and by sea, with ships and with money.. The war might well have ended at this point, especially since Sparta faced a renewed helot threat as a result of the occupation by Pharnabazus and Conon of the island of Cythera. Thibron’s expedition was followed by that of Dercyllidas (399–397), but the most ambitious of all was led by the new Spartan king, Agesilaus, in 396. Inscriptions placed in aggressive prominence on fine temples and templelike buildings at Labranda (and published in 1972) attest the wealth and the Hellenizing intentions of the rulers (the dedicants include Mausolus’s brother and eventual successor Idrieus). , The agreement eventually produced was commonly known as the King's Peace, reflecting the Persian influence the treaty showed. 1 When I came to you, brothers, I did not come with eloquence or wisdom as I proclaimed to you the testimony about God. Agesilaus returned home shortly after these events, but Iphicrates continued to campaign around Corinth, recapturing many of the strong points which the Spartans had previously taken, although he was unable to retake Lechaeum. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. By 395 then, all Sparta’s enemies were ready and willing for war. Proper Worship - An overarching theme in 1 Corinthians is the need for true Christian love that will settle lawsuits and conflicts between brothers. Islam bans the killing of non-combatants (Qur'an 2:190, above), or of a combatant who has been captured. The Athenians, mindful of their similar defeat in the Peloponnesian War less than two decades before, were ready to make peace.. It is said he wryly observed, but for ten thousand Persian "archers", he would have vanquished all Asia.  Sparta was to be the guardian of the peace, with the power to enforce its clauses. A few years after leaving the church, the apostle Paul heard some disturbing reports about the Corinthian church. As often happened in hoplite battles, the right flank of each army was victorious, with the Spartans defeating the Athenians while the Thebans, Argives, and Corinthians defeated the various Peloponnesians opposite them; the Spartans then attacked and killed a number of Argives, Corinthians, and Thebans as these troops returned from pursuing the defeated Peloponnesians. Pharnabazus followed up his victory at Cnidus by capturing several Spartan-allied cities in Ionia, instigating pro-Athenian and pro-Democracy movements.  Seizing Cythera also had the effect of cutting the strategic route between Peloponnesia and Egypt and thus avoiding Spartan-Egyptian collusion, and directly threatening Taenarum, the harbour of Sparta. The Cause of the American Revolution .  According to Plutarch, Agesilaus, the Spartan king, said upon leaving Asia "I have been driven out by 10,000 Persian archers", a reference to "Archers" (Toxotai) the Greek nickname for the Darics from their obverse design, because that much money had been paid to politicians in Athens and Thebes in order to start a war against Sparta. The basic outline of the treaty was laid out by a decree from the Persian king Artaxerxes: King Artaxerxes thinks it just that the cities in Asia should belong to him, as well as Clazomenae and Cyprus among the islands, and that the other Greek cities, both small and great, should be left autonomous (αὐτονόμους), except Lemnos, Imbros, and Scyros; and these should belong, as of old, to the Athenians. The Spartans soon drove off the Athenian fleet, but the Athenians continued their land assault. , The Spartan plan called for two armies, one under Lysander and the other under Pausanias, to rendezvous at and attack the Boeotian city of Haliartus. 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