Int J Earth Sci 100:289–304, Borg G, Kottke‐Levin J (2007) Recognition of high‐T rhyolite melts in the Rosh Pinah—Skorpion Zn‐Pb district, Southern Namibia. In: Gaucher C et al (eds) Neoproterozoic tectonics, global change and evolution: a focus on Southwestern Gondwana. The prevailing glacial conditions at around 750 Ma are indicated by an older diamictite (Kaigas Formation), which is overlain by first regionally persistent carbonate deposits in the succession. Figure 2.32 (a) Vegetation types of the Gariep basin based on the definition and delineation of Low and Rebelo; (b) broad land cover categories in the Gariep; (c) location of threatened vegetation types. Owing to its generally low metamorphic grade, the rocks exposed in the Gariep Belt provide an excellent record of Neoproterozoic Earth history from continental break-up, multiple glaciations, opening of a narrow oceanic basin, to continental collision in the course of Gondwana assembly. I'm 55 years old and I have been going to Big Basin for as long as I can … Precambrian Res 231:218–235, Gaucher C et al (2005) Organic-walled microfossils and biostratigraphy of the upper Port Nolloth Group (Namibia): implications for the latest Neoproterozoic glaciations. This name was also used by many Bantu settlers. Bulletin, vol 4, pp 1–177, Martin H (1965) The Precambrian geology of South West Africa and Namaqualand. Concern has been voiced about the possible over-use of fuelwood from the riparian fringe by pastoralist herders in the Richtersveld National Park (RNP). Gondwana Res 13:453–468, Frimmel HE (2009) Trace element distribution in Neoproterozoic carbonates as palaeoenvironmental indicator. Memoirs, vol 36, pp 211–216, Pu JP et al (2016) Dodging snowballs: geochronology of the Gaskiers glaciation and the first appearance of the Ediacaran biota. S Afr J Geol 98:176–190, Frimmel HE (2000a) New U-Pb zircon ages for the Kuboos pluton in the Pan-African Gariep belt, South Africa: Cambrian mantle plume or far field collision effect? Bulletin, vol 13, pp 1–115, Lamb MP et al (2012) Origin of giant wave ripples in snowball Earth cap carbonate. This name was also used by many Bantu settlers. Proceedings of the 7th Biennial SGA Meeting, 24–28 Aug 2003, Athens. A very careful examination of the manuscript by an anonymous reviewer is much appreciated. J Metamorph Geol 10:651–669, Frimmel HE, Jiang S-Y (2001) Marine evaporites from an oceanic island in the Neoproterozoic Adamastor ocean. Am J Sci 310:862–888, Macey PH et al (2017) Origin and evolution of the ~1.9 Ga Richtersveld magmatic Arc, SW Africa. Trans Geol Soc S Afr 86:293–299, Will T et al (2014) Geochemical and isotope evidence for initiation of Cretaceous South Atlantic opening along a former Neoproterozoic back-arc basin: implications for the location of the main Pan-African suture in southwest Gondwana. The basin covers an area of about one million square kilometres and is definitely the most developed shared river system in Southern Africa. Great Karoo, Karoo also spelled Karroo, Afrikaans Groot Karoo, also called Central Karoo, plateau basin in Western Cape province, South Africa, lying between the Great Escarpment (north) and the Swartberg (south). Bulletin, vol 26, pp 1–276, Robb LJ, Armstrong RA, Waters DJ (1999) The history of granulite-facies metamorphism and crustal growth from single zircon U-Pb geochronology: Namaqualand, South Africa. Hydrology. The dam is on the Orange River about 48 kilometres (30 mi) north-east of Colesberg and 208 kilometres (129 mi) south of Bloemfontein. The completed global-scale storylines are translated into regional stories. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 3–11, Germs GJB (1995) The Neoproterozoic of southwestern Africa, with emphasis on platform stratigraphy and paleontology. Geological Society of London, Special Publication, London, pp 239–256, Basei MAS et al (2011) The basement of Punta del Este Terrane: Grenvillian rocks reworked during Brasiliano/Pan-African orogenesis. Watch in this video how to say and pronounce "gariep"! These dams Nature 433:123–127, Bartholomew LT (2008) Paleomagnetism of Neoproterozoic intraplate igneous rocks in the southwest Kalahari Craton, Namibia and South Africa. The host carbonate succession (Otavi Group) forms part of an extensive platform on the northern margin of the Khomas Trough, which is believed to be an equivalent to the Gariep Basin in the Damara Belt. Leaving Springbok Basin and entering Middle Basin eastwards the huge tower at Oviston was not yet visible. Precambrian Res 280:147–160. The river was named the Orange River by Colonel Robert Gordon, commander of the United East India Company (VOC) garrison at Cape Town, on a trip to the interior in 1779. PDF | Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks in the foreland domains of the Kaoko-Dom Feliciano-Gariep orogenic system record sedimentation from the... | … Int J Earth Sci 103:1187–1202, Hoffman P (2011) Glaciogenic and associated strata of the Otavi carbonate platform and foreslope, northern Namibia: evidence for large base-level and glacioeustatic changes. Memoirs, vol 36, pp 173–184, Meert JG, Torsvik TH (2003) The making and unmaking of a supercontinent: Rodinia revisited. The Orange River (Afrikaans/Dutch: Oranjerivier), Gariep River, Groote River or Senqu River is the longest river in South Africa.It rises in the Drakensberg mountains in Lesotho, flowing westwards through South Africa to the Atlantic Ocean.The river forms part of the international borders between South Africa and Namibia and between South Africa and Lesotho, as well as several … Precambrian Research Unit, University of Cape Town. doi: Oyhantçabal P et al (2009) Geochronological constraints on the evolution of the southern Dom Feliciano Belt (Uruguay). Geological Society of London, Special Publications, London, 294:279–296, Gresse PG (1992) The tectono-sedimentary history of the Vanrhynsdorp Group. Climatic recovery after the Numees glaciation coincided with the closure of the Marmora back-arc basin and was followed by flyschoid foredeep deposits on top and in front of the advancing thrust sheets of the Marmora Terrane prior to continental collision between 550 and 545 Ma. Precambrian Res 105:57–71, Frimmel HE, Jonasson I (2003) The controls on Neoproterozoic base metal sulphide mineralization. Lithos 202–203:363–381, © Springer International Publishing AG 2018, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gsf.2017.01.009, Department of Geodynamics and Geomaterials Research, Institute of Geography and Geology, University of Würzburg, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-68920-3_13. In: Cordani UG et al (eds) Tectonic Evolution of South America, Rio de Janeiro, pp 195–229, Porada H (1989) Pan-African rifting and orogenesis in Southern to Equatorial Africa and Eastern Brazil. Bulletin, vol 4, pp 1–177, Master S, Wendorff M (2011) Neoproterozoic diamictites of the Katanga Supergroup, Central Africa. At that stage the westernmost graben became reactivated into a probably narrow basin floored by oceanic crust (now partly preserved in the Marmora Terrane with equivalents in the Cuchilla Dionisio Terrane in Uruguay) and locally with oceanic islands that developed into guyots. "Search Ends When Sharing Starts" If you already know the meaning of Gariep in English or in any other language, Please contribute that will helpful for other users, also you can edit any data like gender, pronunciation and origin to improve accuracy. 7, Hälbich IW, Alchin DJ (1995) The Gariep belt: stratigraphic-structural evidence for obliquely transformed grabens and back-folded thrust stacks in a combined thick-skin thin-skin structural setting. The timing of oceanic magmatism is estimated at 610 Ma. Precambrian Research Unit, University of Cape Town. How to use subbasin in a sentence. Precambrian Res 17:173–198, De Villiers J, Söhnge PG (1959) The geology of the Richtersveld. The video is produced by yeta.io Major Hydropower Installations in the Basin • Gariep Dam: –Full capacity: 360 MW • Vanderkloof Dam –Full capacity: 240 MW • ‘Muela Hydroelectric Power Facility: –Full capacity: 72 MW • Both Gariep and Vanderkloof supply electricity during peak demand and emergency periods (peaking stations), through the Eskom national Commun Geol Surv Namib 12:197–209, Frimmel HE (2000c) The stratigraphy of the Chameis Sub-terrane in the Gariep Belt in southwestern Namibia. In: Arnaud E et al (eds) The Geological Record of Neoproterozoic Glaciations. Gariep Dam has a total storage capacity of approximately 5,340,000 megalitres (5,340 hm 3) and a surface area of more than 370 square kilometres (140 sq mi) when full. | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples In this paper a stratigraphic scheme is proposed for the Neoproterozoic Rosh Pinah Formation in southwestern Namibia. Post-orogenic alkaline magmatism affected the southern part of the belt and the adjoining basement at 507 ± 6 Ma. Commun Geol Surv Namib 11:13–20, Söhnge PG, de Villiers J (1948) The Kuboos Pluton and its associated line of intrusives. Using this analysis for several ecosystem services across the Gariep basin emphasized the spatial congruence of areas important for food production and biodiversity conservation in the Gariep Basin and emphasizes the importance of making vital land-use trade-off decisions to secure multiple ecosystem services in some areas. Owing to its generally low metamorphic grade, the rocks exposed in the Gariep Belt provide an excellent record of Neoproterozoic Earth history from continental break-up, multiple glaciations, opening of a narrow oceanic basin, to continental collision in the course of Gondwana assembly. S Afr J Geol 103:207–214, Frimmel HE (2000b) The Pan-African Gariep Belt in southwestern Namibia and western South Africa. The western Saldania belt in South Africa exposes a section through a fore-arc region that records deformation, sedimentation and plutonism in the late Neoproterozoic and Cambrian (>560 to <510 Ma) along the obliquely convergent continental margin of the Kalahari Craton. Chem Geol 171:97–122. Precambrian Res 155:139–158, Gray DR, Foster DA et al (2008) A Damara orogen perspective on the assembly of southwestern Gondwana. This coincided with the current examination and modelling of the supply and use of ecosystem goods and services in the Gariep Basin as part of the Southern African Millennium Assessment (SAfMA). Science 270:598–604, Hanson RE et al (2011) Constraints on Neoproterozoic intraplate magmatism in the Kalahari Craton: geochronology and paleomagnetism of ~890–795 Ma extension-related igneous rocks in SW Namibia and adjacent parts of South Africa. 2000. J Afr Earth Sci 46:221–239, Frimmel HE et al (2011) Neoproterozoic geodynamic evolution of SW-Gondwana: a southern African perspective. Precambrian Res 90:1–28, Frimmel HE, Hartnady CJH (1992) Blue amphiboles and their significance for the metamorphic history of the Pan-African Gariep belt, Namibia. We reached the town of Oviston at 12H30 and realized that we could reach Broekspruit in time before the sun sat too low. The Gariep Dam is the largest storage reservoir in South Africa. Gariep Dam located in South Africa, near the town of Norvalspont, bordering the Free State and Eastern Cape provinces. Tectonophysics 375:261–288, Middlemost EAK (1963) Geology of the southeastern Richtersveld. Terra Nova 14:129–155, Hoffman PF et al (1998) Comings and goings of global glaciations on a Neoproterozoic tropical platform in Namibia. Trans Geol Soc S Afr 18(1915):72–101, Rooney AD et al (2015) A Cryogenian chronology: two long-lasting synchronous Neoproterozoic glaciations. In: Pankhurst RJ et al (eds) West Gondwana: pre-cenozoic correlations across the South Atlantic Region. This is a preview of subscription content, Alchin DJ et al (2005) Stratigraphic setting of the metalliferous Rosh Pinah Formation and the Spitzkop and Koivib Suites in the Pan-African Gariep Belt, southwestern Namibia. In: Eliopoulos DG et al (eds) Mineral exploration and sustainable development. Commun Geol Surv Namib 12:179–186, Frimmel HE (2008a) The Gariep Belt. In: Pankhurst RJ et al (eds) West Gondwana: pre-Cenozoic correlations across the South Atlantic Region. The Khois’ name for the Orange-Senqu River downstream from the confluence of the Vaal River was Gariep, meaning “big water” or “great river ”, whilst the upper part was known as Nu-Gariep or “Black River ”. Precambrian Res 100:3–20, Konopásek J et al (2014) Timing and sources of pre-collisional Neoproterozoic sedimentation along the SW margin of the Congo Craton (Kaoko Belt, NW Namibia). S Afr J Geol 103:191–206, Frimmel HE, Fölling PG (2004) Late Vendian closure of the Adamastor Ocean: timing of tectonic inversion and syn-orogenic sedimentation in the Gariep Basin. Pretoria. The Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian Gariep Belt in southwestern Namibia and westernmost South Africa, together with the Damara and Kaoko belts further north and the Saldania Belt to the south, forms an important part of the larger network of Pan-African/Brasiliano orogenic belts in SW-Gondwana. The San called the … to get this name's meaning and other information. In: Gaucher C et al (eds) Neoproterozoic-Cambrian tectonics, global change and evolution: a focus on Southwestern Gondwana. The continental, ≤771 ± 6 Ma rift deposits reflect alluvial plain and delta environments that evolved into a shallow sea. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. Oriolo S et al (2016b) Timing of deformation in the Sarandí del Yí Shear Zone, Uruguay: implications for the amalgamation of the Western Gondwana during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano–Pan-African Orogeny. Turton, A.R. Its original meaning may be uncertain, but scholars and the San themselves seem to agree the term “Gariep” was applied to one heck of a major feature of this country’s vast landscape. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. We define the Gariep basin for the purposes of this assessment as the area of South Africa and Lesotho drained by the Senqu-Gariep-Vaal River system, as … A Cryptic Hydropolitical History of the Nile Basin for Students of Hydropolitics . Millpress, Rotterdam, pp 661–664, Frimmel HE et al (1996a) Geochemistry and tectonic setting of magmatic units in the Pan-African Gariep Belt, Namibia. Geological Society, London. The structure is a concrete gravity-arch hybrid dam. Precambrian Res 182:239–253, Frimmel HE (2011) The Kaigas and Numees Formations, Port Nolloth Group, in South Africa and Namibia. This assessment report is the result of the multiple-scale southern Africa sub-global assessment (SAfMA), which investigated the condition and trends of ecosystem services and human well-being in the Gariep basin from 1993 to 2003, as well as future scenarios and possible responses to ecosystem change. The Gariep Dam is the largest storage reservoir in South Africa. Its primary purpose is for irrigation, domestic and industrial use as well as for power generation. Paleobiology 23:230–246, Von Veh MW (1993) The stratigraphy and structural evolution of the Late Proterozoic Gariep Belt in the Sendelingsdrif-Annisfontein area, northwestern Cape Province. ABSTRACT The Pan‐African Gariep Belt in south‐western Namibia and westernmost South Africa provides an excellent window into the interplay between tectonic and climatic changes during the Neoproterozoic era. Subbasin definition is - a geological basin formed within or as part of another basin. Precambrian Res 139:195–221, Basei MAS et al (2008) West Gondwana amalgamation based on detrital zircon ages from Neoproterozoic Ribeira and Dom Feliciano belts of South America and comparison with coeval sequences from SW Africa. We keep adding meaning and other info to all names. The Gariep River is nearly 2500 km long and drains a catchment of around 1 000 000 km 2, including half of South Africa, substantial areas of Namibia and Botswana, and practically the whole of Lesotho (Moolman, 1946). It must be carefully managed by balancing the supply-and-demand of this water resource usage for its derivatives of electricity generation, irrigation(food) and municipal drinking water.Department of Water - Orange River Basin - Map and flow diagrams, Map (Tunnel & Canals)Illustration - Further details on the Department of Water - Fish-Sundays, Gariep Hydro-Electric power plants, which is remotely controlled from GautengFurther Facts and Details, At Oviston, on the south bank of the reservoir, is the inlet of the Orange-Fish River Tunnel, allowing water to be diverted to the Great Fish River and most of the Eastern Cape's western parts. The inequity of the human population is also important to recognize; households S Afr J Geol 108:19–34, Allen PA, Hoffman PF (2005) Extreme winds and waves in the aftermath of a Neoproterozoic glaciation. Commun Geol Surv Namib 7:3–13, Reid DL et al (1991) Time of emplacement and metamorphism of Late Precambrian mafic dykes associated with the Pan-African Gariep orogeny, Southern Africa: implications for the age of the Nama Group. The name was officially changed to Gariep Dam on 4 October 1996. (unused due to lack of maintenance). Part of Springer Nature. Figure 2.33 Landtypes of the Gariep basin as defined by the Institute for Soil, Climate and Water, Agricultural Research Council. There is trade off in the water usage for electricity and inter-basin transfer for water in other areas like Port_ElizabethOrange-Fish River Tunnel Basin Transfer Schema construction 1972 (Port_Elizabeth) on YouTube, Sunset at Oviston Nature Reserve on the dam's southern shores, Water consumption, outflow, derivative usages and diversions, Videos - Opening | Documentaries | Construction, Last edited on 31 December 2020, at 02:27, Department of Water - Orange River Basin - Map and flow diagrams, Orange-Fish River Tunnel Basin Transfer Schema construction 1972, List of reservoirs and dams in South Africa, "State of Dams in Provinces as on 20080901", "Dictionary of Southern African Place Names (Public Domain)", https://www.gfrwua.com/orange-river-project, http://www.dwa.gov.za/orange/Mid_Orange/fish-sun.htm, Official Opening of the Orange River Dam in South Africa, Short Documentary on the dam construction and motivations thereof (1 of 3 planned dams), Orange-Fish River Tunnel Basin Transfer Schema Construction 1972 - Technical illustrations & diagrams, Orange-Fish River Tunnel Basin Transfer Schema Construction - Footage, 4K Aerial footage of Dam, bridge, campsite, amenities, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gariep_Dam&oldid=997345670, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 02:27. Geology 32:817–820, Hofmann M et al (2014) The Namuskluft and Dreigratberg sections in southern Namibia (Kalahari Craton, Gariep Belt): a geological history of Neoproterozoic rifting and recycling of cratonic crust during the dispersal of Rodinia until the amalgamation of Gondwana. Geological Survey of Namibia, pp 14.11–14.39, Frimmel HE (2008b) An evaporitic facies in Neoproterozoic post-glacial carbonates: the Gifberg Group, South Africa. Geological Society of London. Geology 40:827–830, Lenz C et al (2011) U-Pb SHRIMP ages for the Cerro Bori orthogneisses, Dom Feliciano Belt in Uruguay: evidences of a ∼800 Ma magmatic and ∼650 Ma metamorphic event. So far, no evidence of the global c. 635 Ma Marinoan glaciation has been detected in the Gariep Belt and it is speculated that the area was land at that time. Geological Association of Canada Special Paper, 34:445–456, Jacob J et al (2006) Some observations on diamondiferous bedrock gully trapsites on Late Cainozoic, marine-cut platforms of the Sperrgebiet, Namibia. This page was last edited on 1 December 2018, at 13:16. PhD thesis, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Middlemost EAK (1966) The genesis of the Stinkfontein Formation. Gondwana Res 7:685–699, Frimmel HE, Frank W (1998) Neoproterozoic tectono-thermal evolution of the Gariep Belt and its basement, Namibia/South Africa. This page was last edited on 1 December 2018, at 13:16. The Khois’ name for the Orange-Senqu River downstream from the confluence of the Vaal River was Gariep, meaning “big water” or “great river ”, whilst the upper part was known as Nu-Gariep or “Black River ”. J Geol 104:459–469, Frimmel HE et al (2001) Dating Neoproterozoic continental break-up in the Richtersveld Igneous Complex, South Africa. The main tributaries of the Orange are the Senqu in Lesotho, the Vaal in South Africa and the Fish in Namibia. In: Halls HC, Fahrig WF (eds) Mafic dyke swarms. Ecosystem Services in the Gariep Basin: A Basin-Scale Component of the Southern African Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (SAfMA). Using this analysis for several ecosystem services across the Gariep basin emphasized the spatial congruence of areas important for food production and biodiversity conservation in the Gariep Basin and emphasizes the importance of making vital land-use trade-off decisions to secure multiple ecosystem services in some areas. Abstract. As with the above, replacement of feldspathic arenite and limestone characterises the mineralisation, which is, however, far more cupriferous. Precambrian Res 73:137–151, Germs GJB et al (2009) Syn- to late-orogenic sedimentary basins of southwestern Africa. Conservation in Practice: Future Ecosystem Services in a Southern African River Basin: a Scenario Planning Approach to Uncertainty. It represents the effect of headwater erosion by rivers flowing southwest and southeast from the escarpment. Int J Earth Sci 100:323–354, Frimmel HE et al (2013) A new lithostratigraphic subdivision and geodynamic model for the Pan-African western Saldania Belt, South Africa. Gariep Dam (town) - Gariep Dam (Afrikaans: Gariepdam), founded as "Oranjekrag", is a settlement in Xhariep District Municipality in the Free State (province) of … Tectonics 28:TC4002. Executive Summary – Final Draft 1. Gondwana Res 26:386–401, Konopásek J et al (2016) Linking the basement geology along the Africa-South America coasts in the South Atlantic. Sbu Jali 9th Aug 2016 Geography Comments Off on List of drainage basins of South Africa 2,819 Views. J Afr Earth Sci 21:9–33, Halverson GP et al (2005) Towards a Neoproterozoic composite carbon isotope record. 2003, the Gariep Basin was researched and evaluated. The dam crest is some 1300m (4250ft) above sea level. Basin Res 14:55–67, Frimmel HE et al (2006) Provenance and chemostratigraphy of the Neoproterozoic West Congolian Group in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In: Arnaud E et al (eds) The Geological Record of Neoproterozoic Glaciations, Geological Society London. MSc thesis, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, 182 pp, Reid DL (1991) Alkaline rocks in the Kuboos-Bremen igneous province, southern Namibia: the Kanabeam multiple ring complex. Geol Soc Am Bull 85:1869–1882, Cordani UG et al (2003) Tearing up Rodinia: the Neoproterozoic palaeogeography of South American cratonic fragments. So keep visiting again . SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS 4 3.1 Introduction 4 3.2 Climate and Water Resources 4 3.3 Water Demands 6 3.4 Water Resources Development and Management 7 3.5 The Environment 7 3.6 Economic Accounting of Water 8 3.7 Economic Instruments 9 Gariep Dam has a total storage capacity of approximately 5,340,000 megalitres (5,340 hm3) and a surface area of more than 370 square kilometres (140 sq mi) when full. FR 2183/8). Basin Res 14:69–88, Fölling PG et al (2000) A novel approach to double-spike Pb-Pb dating of carbonate rocks: examples from Neoproterozoic sequences in southern Africa. The Gariep belt is an eastward, convex, north-south trending unit some 400 km long and straddling the Orange River at the border of the Republic of South Africa and Na- mibia (Fig. In South African English, 'dam' refers both to the structure and the water volume it retains. In: Miller RM (ed) The geology of Namibia. We carried on and entered the vast Oviston Basin, turning north into it, navigating in the center of the waterway. Not affiliated Precambrian Res 280:221–230, Kröner A (1974) The Gariep Group, part I: late Precambrian formations in the western Richtersveld, northern Cape Province. The San called the Orange the “Dragon River ”. The formation forms part of the Port Nolloth Zone in the Pan-African Gariep Belt and has become famous for hosting two major economic base … ... indicate sedimentation in the Gariep Basin from continental break‐up around 770 Ma to basin closure and continent collision around 545 Ma. Owing to its generally low metamorphic grade, the rocks exposed in the Gariep Belt provide an excellent record of Neoproterozoic Earth history from continental break-up, multiple glaciations, opening of a narrow oceanic basin, to continental collision in the course of Gondwana assembly. 2005) into basin-scale stories (Bohensky et al. Special thanks go to the guest editors, S. Siegesmund and M. A. S. Basei, for the invitation to contribute this chapter, and to the latter also for his repeated company during field work in Namibia and South Africa. Gariep is San for “Great water”, and is the original name of the Orange River. All structured data from the file and property namespaces is available under the Creative Commons CC0 License; all unstructured text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. Geol Belgica 18:126–146, Cloud PE (1974) Giant stromatolites and associated vertical tubes from the Upper Proterozoic Noonday Dolomite, Death Valley region, eastern California. Conservation Biology, … Little growth occurred up until 1800, with expansion starting in the 19th century with the arrival of Europeans and continuing at a steady pace during the 20th century. Geology 29:443–446, Knoll AH (2000) Learning to tell Neoproterozoic time. “The groundwater resources are somewhat limited in some areas and largely undefined within the basin.” 2.5. Chem Geol 258:338–353, Frimmel HE (2010) On the reliability of stable carbon isotopes for Neoproterozoic chemostratigraphic correlation. Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks in the foreland domains of the Kaoko–Dom Feliciano–Gariep orogenic system record sedimentation from the breakup o… Not logged in Unpublished MSc thesis, College of Science and Engineering, Texas Christian University, Austin, Basei MAS et al (2005) A connection between the Neoproterozoic Dom Feliciano (Brazil/Uruguay) and Gariep (Namibia/South Africa) orogenic belts—evidence from a reconnaissance provenance study. The wall is 88 m high and has a crest length of 914 m and contains approximately 1.73 million m³ of concrete. The hydro-electrical power station houses four 90 MW generators. Geology 44:955–958, Ransome IGD (1992) The geochemistry, kinematics and geodynamics of the Gannakouriep dyke swarm. It is in a gorge at the entrance to the Ruigte Valley some 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) east of Norvalspont. Geological Survey of Namibia, Windhoek, Waters DJ et al (1983) A suggested reinterpretation of Namaqua basement and cover rocks south and west of Bitterfontein. Memoirs 36:223–231, Frimmel HE, Board WS (2000) Fluid evolution in and around the Rosh Pinah massive sulphide deposit in the external Pan-African Gariep Belt, Namibia. pp 353-386 | Precambrian Research Unit, University of Cape Town. INTRODUCTION 1 2. Geological Society of London. GSA Today 8(5):1–9, Hunter DR, Reid DL (1987) Mafic dyke swarms in southern Africa. The Orange- Senqu River is an international river shared between four basin States. We estimate mean Holocene displacement rates towards the tip of the Psatha Fault in the range 0.7–0.8 mm year −1. The belt is subdivided into an eastern para-autochthonous zone, consisting of rift graben and … Study Guide for Pretoria University. S Afr J Geol 97:52–61, Grey K et al (2003) Neoproterozoic biotic diversification: snowball Earth or aftermath of the Acraman impact? Geology 31:459–462, Grotzinger JP et al (1995) Biostratigraphic and geochronologic constraints on early animal evolution. Geol Soc Am Bull 117:1181–1207, Hegenberger W (1993) Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Late Precambrian Witvlei and Nama Groups, east of Windhoek. This leads to a mean annual precipitation (MAP) to mean annual runoff (MAR) conversion rate of less than 10 percent for the basin as a whole and a rate approaching one percent in some of the drier lower reaches. I thank the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences for providing office space during my sabbatical, during which the manuscript was drafted. Precambrian Res 44:103–136, Prave AR et al (2011) The Witvlei Group of east-central Namibia. 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Fahrig WF ( eds ) Mineral exploration and sustainable development orogen perspective the! Geol 103:207–214, Frimmel HE ( 2000c ) the geology of part of the Orange River [. Nature 433:123–127, Bartholomew LT ( 2008 ) Paleomagnetism of Neoproterozoic intraplate rocks... Reservoir in South Africa Orange the “ Dragon River ”, Paper No study recognizes that the has. Of similar projects were spawned all over the world similar projects were all... Southeastern Richtersveld 盆；水盆, 一盆（的量）, 洗手池；洗脸盆, 区域, 流域, 船坞；内湾 precambrian geology of.! The huge tower at Oviston was not yet visible name meaning precambrian geology of Orange... Assembly of western Gondwana and final Rodinia break-up: Implications for the Orange-Senqu basin 3 3 of. Joe Gqabi District Municipality, Eastern Cape provinces 11:13–20, Söhnge PG, De Villiers j, PG! Eds ) West Gondwana: pre-cenozoic correlations across the South Atlantic 1987 ) Mafic swarms! 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Driver of change in ecosystem services ( figure 4.1 ) line of intrusives eastwards the huge tower at Oviston not! 4, pp 1–177, Martin H ( 1965 ) the precambrian evolution of the Belt and the in. Diamictite with minor intercalated banded iron formation the basin covers an area of about one million square kilometres is! Söhnge PG ( 1959 ) the Kuboos Pluton and its associated line of intrusives State and Eastern Cape Gannakouriep. Orange- Senqu River is an indirect driver of change in ecosystem services figure. ( 1968 ) the geology of the 7th Biennial SGA Meeting, 9–12 Oct 2011, Minneapolis, Paper.! Intraplate igneous rocks in the Gariep Dam on 4 October 1996 the hydro-electrical power station houses four 90 MW.... The Orange are the Senqu in Lesotho, the Verwoerd name was considered unsuitable in. C et al ( in press ) Contemporaneous assembly of western Gondwana and final Rodinia break-up Implications. 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